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中巴经济走廊行记⑥M L-1 :跨越百年 打造路网新时

中华书画在线资讯网2019-10-09 11:39 296 人围观
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《一带一路报道》记者 彭纳


一列绿皮火车正从老拉维河大桥上驶过 彭纳 摄


8月,已经进入雨季的巴基斯坦被一种湿热裹挟着,凌空高照的烈日肆无忌惮地炙烤着每一寸土地,拉合尔市上百年的火车站里,斑驳屋顶上的吊扇有气无力地打转,却并未给往来的人们带来一丝凉意。远方隐隐传来汽笛声,一辆绿皮火车带着阵热浪和车尾的黄沙缓缓停靠在了站台。顷刻间,人流从车厢涌出,叫嚷声、催促声、轰鸣声为这座原本就热闹的车站又增添了一重喧嚣。


拉合尔火车站手绘图 李卉嫔 摄


“线路建成以后,既有的平交道口将全部封闭,现有的行包通道以后不能用了,需不需要新建一个?”“从图纸来看,现在尽头线是用于停放火车的地方,以后这里依旧停放火车还是需要修改,巴方有考量过吗?”站台的喧嚣被隔绝在了火车站不大的VIP贵宾室外,这里一场关于站台及铁路沿线ML-1线升级改造地讨论,让室内的热烈与车站的喧嚣呼应起来。那些行色匆匆的人们还不知道,他们乘坐的这条上百年历史的铁路即将更新换代,在不久的未来,他们将进入铁路“高速时代”。


It’s August when Pakistan had already entered into the rainy season and became increasingly sticky. The sun glared down with merciless intensity on every inch of the ground. In the century-old train station of Lahore, the ceiling fan on the mottled roof was spinning feebly but it didn’t bring a touch of coolness to the people coming and going. There were faint train whistles from the distance as a green train slowly docked at the platform, leaving heat waves and dusty sand behind. In an instant as the crowds streamed out of the carriages, there arose another great clamour from the already busy station together with the cries, urging voice and roars.


位于拉合尔市的百年车站 李卉嫔 摄


“After the completion of the line, all the existing level crossings will be closed, and the baggage-dedicated galleries will be no longer usable in the future. Is it necessary to build a new baggage-dedicated gallery?” “According to the drawing, the end line is now a place used to park the train. In the future, do we need to make some modification or just leave it as it is? Has the Pakistani side taken that into consideration? ” The small VIP room of the railway station kept off the noise from the platform. There was a discussion on the upgrading of the platform and the ML-1 line along the railway line. Such a heated discussion was echoed by the noise of the station. Those hurrying tos-and-fros were still unaware that the century-old railways they were riding were about to be renewed, and in the near future they would enter the railway “high-speed era”.


一辆开往百年的列车

拉合尔古堡


在巴基斯坦铁路分布示意图上,由南端城市卡拉奇开往北部城市白沙瓦的名为ML-1线的铁路线占据了示意图最明显的位置,这条总长1780多公里的铁路穿越了巴基斯坦四大省中的三个,沿线途经海德拉巴、木尔坦、拉合尔、伊斯兰堡等巴基斯坦经济最为发达的城市。可以说,ML-1线是巴基斯坦铁路南北运输的主通道,承担了巴国通过卡拉奇港进出口货物运输以及客流互通的任务。然而,这条线路在今天颇显疲态,究其原因,要追溯这趟列车开过的百年发展史。


ML-1线的建设运输历史,与整个巴基斯坦铁路的建设史休戚相关。1861年5月13日,巴基斯坦国内第一条从卡拉奇开往戈德里的铁路线通车运行,这便是ML-1线的前身。从始建之初到20世纪80年代,以ML-1线为代表的巴基斯坦铁路运输占据着陆路运输的重要位置。


ML-1线上的乘客 彭纳 摄


从卡拉奇到白沙瓦,往来的列车在ML-1线奔波了上百年,在这百年里,由于体制、资金和管理等原因,铁路缺乏有效的养护维修,虽然不间断地修修补补,但依旧无力阻止其老化的命运。随着运力和速度的不断下降,再加上公路网络、航空通道的发展,整个铁路运输的货运量在1999年跌至谷底。数据显示,1999年,巴铁路客运量不到客运总量的10%,货运量仅占货运总量(远洋运输除外)的3%。8月4日,PIU(巴基斯坦ML-1线项目执行小组)运输专家哈马丹带领我们参观拉合尔火车站时给出了一组数据,作为巴第二大城市,拉合尔车站每天的客运量在1.4万-1.5万,对比全国2亿的人口总量以及密度,铁路运输的优势没能有效释放。


“如今,ML-1线的平均运营速度只能达到30-40公里/小时,从白沙瓦到卡拉奇全程需要花费30多个小时。”采访中,PIU组长巴适哈特指出,时间就是核心竞争力,要发展经济,必须解决ML-1线乃至整个铁路网的提速升级。如何破解这样的铁路困局?带着疑问,我们走进了中国中铁二院巴基斯坦既有铁路ML-1线升级改造工程项目指挥部的驻地。


A railway line operated for more than 100 years

On the map of Pakistan’s railway distribution, the railway line named ML-1 from the southern city of Karachi to the northern city of Peshawar occupies the most obvious position. With a total length of more than 1,780 kilometers, the railway crosses three of the four major provinces of Pakistan and passes through the most economically developed cities in Pakistan, such as Hyderabad, Multan, Lahore and Islamabad. It can be said that the ML-1 line is the main channel for the north-south transportation of the Pakistani railway, which undertakes the import and export of goods and passenger flow of Pakistan through the port of Karachi. However, the reason why the line is so overburdened today can be traced to the history of the 100-year development of this line.


The construction and transportation history of the ML-1 line is closely related to the construction history of the entire Pakistan railway. On May 13, 1861, the first railway line from Karachi to Kotri was opened to traffic in Pakistan, which was the predecessor of the ML-1 line. Since it was built, Pakistan’s railway transportation represented by the ML-1 line had dominated the land transportation until the 1980s.


拉合尔火车站上的卸货工 李卉嫔 摄


Trains from Karachi to Peshawar have been running on the ML-1 line for the past 100 years, during which there has been a lack of effective maintenance and repair due to institutional, financial and management reasons. Thus continuous tinkering wasn’t enough to prevent it from aging. With the continuous decline of capacity and speed, combined with the development of road networks and airways, the freight volume of the whole railway transportation fell to the bottom in 1999. According to the data, in 1999, the passenger volume of the railway in Pakistan made up less than 10% of the total passenger volume, and the freight volume made up only 3% of the total freight volume (excluding ocean transport). Back on August 4, Hamdan, a transport expert from PIU (Pakistan ML-1 Line Project Implementation Team), led us to visit Lahore Railway Station and gave a set of data, which showed that the advantages of railway transportation had not been brought into full play, judging from the comparison of the number of passengers per day (14,000-15,000) at the station of Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, and the total population and density of the country (200 million).


“Today, the average operating speed of the ML-1 line can only reach 30-40 km/h, which means it takes more than 30 hours for a journey from Peshawar to Karachi.” In the interview, Basharat, the leader of PIU pointed out that time was the core competitiveness. To develop the economy, it is a must-to-do to solve the problem of speeding-up and upgrading of the ML-1 line and even the entire railway network. How could we deal with such a railway dilemma? With questions, we walked into the resident of the headquarters of China Railway Second Academy Engineering Group Co., Ltd, which was in charge of the upgrading project for ML-1 line, one of the existing railways in Pakistan.


起底ML-1

驻地位于拉合尔市一处僻静的小路,两层的小楼,是这个平均年龄只有30多岁的设计团队生活及工作的地方。出于安保考虑,成员平日里是不允许单独外出的,他们离开指挥部最常去的地方便是巴业主方的办公室以及项目现场,在这样的环境中,他们一待便是近三年。


“ML-1线属于中巴经济走廊铁路规划项目的一部分,整个铁路规划项目是从中国新疆喀什一路向南到巴基斯坦的卡拉奇,全长大约有2900公里,其中1150公里是新建部分,剩下的都是在既有铁路的基础上进行升级改造。ML-1线升级改造是巴基斯坦铁路建设史上最大的铁路项目,是中国铁路‘走出去’历史上由外方出资委托我国咨询设计的最长铁路项目。”80后站场专业工程师孙中阳向记者介绍了该项目的背景。


在中巴经济走廊铁路规划项目中,ML-1线就属于既有铁路改造部分。改造将分为两期,其中1期有6个子项目,2期将有8个子项目。两期项目的工期预计分别为5年,全线提速升级改造完成大约需要10年。


拉合尔火车站入口 李卉嫔 摄


在团队的踏勘中,ML-1线暴露出的问题让设计团队惊愕。虽然在国内已经对线路情况有所了解,但当孙中阳实地走进ML-1线时,实际的情况却比他想的更糟一些。“这条线路能开行上百年,真的已经很不容易了。”有的路段已经被埋在土里,百年的运行让路基病害非常严重,再加上铁路养护维修等没有跟上,这些问题都将是整个升级改造的重中之重。


从孙中阳的口中我们得知,ML-1线的升级改造将在轨道、路基、桥涵、站场、通信、信号及运营维护等方面下大力气,经过改造,将形成时速为160公里/小时或120公里/小时的双线通道。“升级以后的ML-1线,将实现朝发夕至。”行车效率的提高还不能满足铁路的发展,对于线路的运营维护,设计团队还将专门编制一本维护手册。由于ML-1线的所有路段在未来都将成为双线,线路通过能力将得到进一步提升。因此,沿途许多的车站将不再保留。当记者问起拉合尔市那座百年车站是否会保留时,答案在站台得到了揭晓。


Details of ML-1

The resident is located on a secluded path in Lahore. The two-story building is the place where the design team lives and works with an average age of just over 30. Due to security concerns, members are not allowed to go out alone on weekdays. The most frequent place for them to leave the headquarters is the office of the owners and the project site. In such an environment, they have stayed for nearly three years.


“The ML-1 line is part of the railway planning project of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. In the project, the railway is designed to be built from Kashgar, in Xinjiang, China all the way south to Karachi in Pakistan. The total length of the railway is about 2,900km, of which 1,150km are newly built and the rest are upgraded on the basis of existing railways. The upgrading of the ML-1 line is the largest railway project in the history of Pakistan’s railway construction, and the longest railway project commissioned by the foreign party to entrust China’s consultation and design in the history of ‘China Railway Going Global’,” Sun Zhongyang, a field professional engineer born after the eighties, introduced the background of the project to the reporter.


In the railway planning project of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, the ML-1 line is part of the existing railway reconstruction. The transformation will be divided into two phases, with 6 sub-projects in Phase 1 and 8 sub-projects in Phase 2. The construction period of the two projects is expected to be both 5 years, and it will take about 10 years to complete the speeding up and upgrading transformation of the line.


繁忙的拉合尔火车站 彭纳 摄


During the team’s exploration, the problems exposed in the ML-1 line also made the design team stunned. Although Sun Zhongyang already knew something about the route at home, the on-the-spot investigation of the ML-1 line made him realize that the actual situation was worse than he thought. “It is really not easy for this line to operate for a hundred years.” Some road sections have been buried in the soil. The roadbed has been too over-strained for being in operation for a hundred years, compounded by a lack of maintenance and repair of the railway. These problems will be the top priority of the whole upgrading and reconstruction.


From Sun Zhongyang’s description, we know that great efforts will be made for the the upgrading and reconstruction of ML-1 line in track, roadbed, bridge and culvert, station yard, communication, signal, operation and maintenance, etc. After the transformation, a double-track channel will be formed with a speed of 160 km/h or 120 km/h. “It will be realized to start in the morning and arrive in the evening after the upgrading of ML-1 line.” The improvement of operating efficiency isn’t enough to meet the development of the railway. A maintenance manual will also be specially prepared by the design team for the operation and maintenance of the line. As all sections of the ML-1 line will become double tracks in the future, the capacity of the line will be further improved. Therefore, many stations along the way will not be retained. When the reporter asked if the 100-year-old station in Lahore would be retained, the answer was revealed on the platform.


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国内统一连续出版物号:CN51-1788/F


国际标准连续出版物号:ISSN2096-2886


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投稿邮箱:thebeltandroadrpt@163.com


编辑:向雯


审核:李卉嫔


总编:邓灼


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